Bakhtin’s heritage is considered in its entanglement with modernism and its currents: symbolism, post-symbolism, neo-symbolism. Criticism of individualism and subjectivism, expressed by Vyacheslav Ivanov in the concept of religious catholicity, is formulated by Bakhtin in the categories of dialogue, polyphony, and carnivalism. In the development of Ivanov, Bakhtin creates a hermeneutic concept of the word, which takes on various forms and renews the world without its material change; this is facilitated by the correlation of the word with the meaning. Bakhtin (as well as many post-symbolists and neo-symbolists – O.Eh. Mandelstam, A.A. Akhmatova and others) is inherent in the philosophical ideal-realism. It assumes juxtaposition, balance of the ideal and the material in their concreteness, their mutual transition.